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SINDHI LITERATURE DURING DIFFERENT PERIODS

ARAB PERIOD  712 TO 1050 A.D

We find a hypothesis that 1st Sindhi poetry was found during the Arab period.

Muhammad bio Qoslm conquered Sindh in 712 A.D,

Chach Namo is the 1st  book of Slndhl History, and then it was translated by Ali Hamid Kofi in

Persian in 1216. Some writers of view that it was first written by Imam Ibrahim in Arabic.

Chach Namo is also known as Fateh Nano.

Chacha was the name of the father of Raja Dahir.

 

SOORMA PERIOD 1050 10 1350 A.D

Ibne-Soomro is said to be the founder of the Soorma dynasty in Sindh.

Allaudin Khilji invaded Sindh during this period.

Dodo Soomro is said to be martyred in the fight against Allauddin Khilji.

The last ruler of Soomro Dynasty in Sindh was (ARMEEL) Hameer Soomro.

Soomra period Is known as the ‘initial period of development of Sindhi literature.

Only poetry not prose, developed in this period,

We find 1st women poetess Mai Markham Shaikhir who used to write and sing Geech now called Sehra.            ^

We find Ballads (Ghaah), Epic (Riizmya poetry), and Ginann poetry in this period.

1st Sindhl Alphabet was created in this period by Khuwaja Sadruddin Ismaeeli.

The Sindhi Alphabet was known as Khuwaja Sindhi or 40 akhri,

Bhagho Bhan, Samang Charran, and Pir Sadruddin are important poets of this period.

7 Soormion of SHAH LATIF belonged  to this period except for Noori— INCLUDING; – Marvi, Leela, Sassui, Mooma, Sunhi, and Sorath,

There were 2 Sindhi women rulers –Tarrl Bbai & Hamoon Bbai.S

 

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SAMMA PERIOD 1350 TO 1521 A.D

This period  is known to be a period of liberal development of Slndhl Literature,

This period Is famous for ” Qazi Qadan io Dor” because he Is known as the father of Sindhi poetry.

Qazi Qadan (1463 to 1551) is known to be the poet of the Samma dynasty during its last period &

the initial period of the Argoon Dynasty,

Dr.Daudpoto Is of the view that Qazi Qadan belonged to Sehwan.

Dr. Nabi Bux Is of the view that Qazi Qadan belonged lo Bakhar.

Mahdavi Movement was found In this period, movement run by Miran Muhammad Mahdavi

Qazi Qadan was influenced by this movement.

We also find “Mamoo”  in JA Bait in this period.

Important poets of this period are Qazi Qadan, Mamoi Faqeer, and Ishaq Aahngar, etc.

Shah Abdul Latif had an impact on his poetry of Qazi Qadan

 

Argon – 1521 to 1555 A.D / Turkhan-1555 to 1592 / Mughal Period 1592 to 1700 A.D

They all were foreign rulers. So Sindh literature could not develop under these eras.

Shah Abdul Karim Bulri Waro (1538-1623) was the poet of the Turkhan Dynasty. We find his

poetry in ‘Bian-ul-Aarfeen’. He is known as Mubashar of SHAH ABDUL LATIF, Sindh jo “CHAUSAR” & Sindhi Adab Jo “Wihao Taro”.

Me’ an SHAH Inayat Rizvi (1644-1713) mainly belongs to the Mughal period.

1st ever Sindhi Risalo was Me’ an Shah Inayat Jo Risalo ’22’ Sur (chapters). He is known as Mojid (founder) of Wai.    

Shah Inayat Sufi Shaheed (1656-1718) mainly belongs to the Mughal period.

He is titled as ‘1st Socialist of Sindh‘ by Mir Hisamuddin Rashdi. His slogan was ‘Jo kherre so khae’. His tomb in jhok sharif.

 

KALHORA PERIOD 1700 TO 1782 A.D

It is known as the ‘Golden period of Sindhi period’.

Shah Abdul Latif belongs to this period.

The second development of the Sindhi alphabet was made in this period.

Makhdhoom Abdul Hassan made another Sindhi Alphabet.

He wrote the first book Sindhi Alphabet ‘Muqaddam-e-5alat’.

Urrozi poetry in Sindhi started in this period.

Ghazal started in this period.

 Moor Muhammad Khasta is said to be the 1st Sindhi poet who wrote Ghazal.

Madah, Manajat, Seegar, Maujiza, Molood, etc, poetry started in this period.

Khuwaja Muhammad Zaman was contemporary of Shah Abdul latif. He is known as ‘Sultan- ul-Auliya’.

Poetry of Khuwaja Muhammad Zaman is in Book ‘Abyat-e-Sindhi’.

 

TALPUR PERIOD 1782 TO 1844 A.D

It is  known as Miran jo dor’,

It is also known as ‘Sachal Sarmast Jo Dor’.He was an Important poet of this period.

Urs of Sachal Sarmast is celebrated on 14th Ramzan every year.

Sachal Sarmast’s real name was Abdul Wahab.

In 2017, the 196th Urs of Sachai Sarmast was celebrated.

Sachal Sarmast belonged to Daraza, Khairpur.

Sachal used  “Aashkar” as his title In Persian history.

Sachal is commonly known as ‘Haft Zlbanshayar” poet of 7 languages.

Syed Sabit Ali shah founded Marsio In this period.

Sachal founded Jholno & Gharroli In this period.

Akhund Azizullah Muttatawal translated the Quran first time In Sindhi in this period.

This translation of the Quran is said to be the start of Slndhl prose,

Sami another Important poet of Slndhl mainly belong to this period,

The real name of Sami was Bhal chain Rae Lund.

Sami belongs to Shikarpur.

The poetry of Sami is Knowns as ‘Salook”.

Shah, Sachal  & Sami Is called (Trimurti of Sindhi literature).

 

BRITISH PERIOD 1843 TO 1947 A.D

Sindhi was made the official language in Sindh by the Britishers.

 52-akhri alphabet in Sindhi-Arabic style was treated in this period.

1st Sindhi book-‘Baab-Namo’ (Darsi book) was published after the Slndhl alphabet was created.

Baab Namo was written by Nande Ram Mceranl.

Mirza Qaleech  Baig belongs to this period. He Is the father of Sindhi literature and prose.

‘Sao Pan ya Karo Pan’ is the autobiography of Mirza Qaleech Balg.

The first English Sindhi dictionary was written by Deputy Collector of Sindh George stack.

The first book on criticism in Slndhl was “Meezan-ul Shair” by Syed Fazil Shah.

Sir Henry Bartle Frere was commissioner of Sindh who ordered for the creation of Sindhi alphabet.

Sindhi alphabet was created In 1853.

Mr. Elis was the head of the committee to create the Slndhl alphabet.

The first novel of Slndhl is Raseelas by Samuel Johnson translated by Sadhu Naval Rae & Munshi Udhararri  Thanwar Das.

1st  drama of Slndhl is Laila Majnoo by Mirza Qaleech Baig.

1ST  Afsaana of sindhi is “Sudhatori & Khudhatori” By Miran Muhammad.    

1ST essay book in Sindhi is ‘Maqalat-ul-Hikmat’ a book of Francis bacon translated by Marza Qaleech Baig.

Mirza Qaleech Baig is the ‘shams-ul-Ulema’ (sun of scholars) of Sindh.

Bedal Faqeer & Bekas Faqeer belonged to Rohri.

John Keats of Sindh is Bekas.

Real name of Bedal Faqeer is Qadirb Bux Bedal.

Real name of Bekas Faqeer is Muhammad Mohsin Bekas.

Umar Bin Daudpoto is the shams-ul-ulema (sun of scholars) of Sindh.

Umar-bin-Daudpoto, of Talti—Dadu, also remained member of Pakistan public service commission from 1950 to 1955.

Dr. Hotchand Molchand Gurbuxani was the 1st Ph.D. from Sindh.

His Ph.D. was from London university in 1928 on the topic “mysticism In-English poetry”

‘Muqaddam-e-latifi’ is a famous book by Dr.Gurbuxani.

 

 

 

 

 

SINDHI LITERATURE

Shah Abdul Latif is the greatest poet, born in Bhit shah, near Hala in 1689. And the collection of his

poetry is known as “SHAH jo RISAlO”. He dies at age of 63 years in 1752

Shah Habib is the name of his father. And Shah Abdul Karim Bulrri Waro was the grandfather of Shah Latif.

Special Khalifa of Shah Abdul Latif was timar Faqeer and his real name was Haji Ali.

The horse name of SHAH ABDUL LATIF WAS “CNANGAL”,

Madan Baghat was a Hindu poet of Sindhi language and one of the close friends of SHAH ABDUL LATIF,

When SHAH ABDUILATIF was a young man, Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro was the ruler of Sindh.

When SHAH ABDUL LATIF was old, MIAN GHULAM SHAH KALHORO was the ruler of SINDH.

SUFI SHAH INAYAT SHAHEED’S (SUFI FRIEND OF LATIF) URS is celebrated on 14th SAFAR”.

URS OF SHAH ABDUL LATIF is celebrated on the 14th OF URS (RAD-UL-AWAL) every year.

In 2017,274 URS OF SHAH ABDUL LATIF was celebrated.

 

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TIMAR FAQrER took care of ‘“TANBORO “ of SHAH ABDUL LATIF after his death.

During the attack of AHMED SHAH ABDALI ON SINDH, the age of LATIF was 56 years.

During the attack of AHMED SHAH DURRANI on Sindh, the age of LATIF was S8 years.

ATTAL & CHANCHAL were two singers who helped LATIF in the collection of SHAH JO R1SALO.

SHAH JO RISALO  kept in the museum of London, was collected by DR.TRUMP,

The first collection of SHAH JO RISALO is known as “GANJ”.  It was in the custody of TIMAR FAQEER, afterward In the custody of his family.

GANJ  means “TREASURE” (KHAZANA).

GANJ R1SALO was collected by ABDUL A2EEM famously known as “WADDA SHAH”.

GANJ was first time published in 1792, after 40 years of the death of SHAH ABOUL LATIF.

1st   Sur of GANJI is “SUR SASSUI”.

There arc thirty SUR [CHAPTERS) in SHAH JO RISALO.

SHAH ABDUL LATIF was the poet of KALHORO PERIOD.

SHAH ADUL LATIF of BHITT “book was written by DR. H T.50RLEY.

The full name of DR.H.T.SORLEY is HERBERT TOWER SORLEY.

The first Ph.D. on SHAH ABDUL LATIF was that of DR.H.T SORLEY.

SHAH ABDUL LATIF of BHITT was translated Into Sindhi by ATTA MUHAMMAD BHABHRO “BHlT JO SHAH”.

SHAH ABDUL LATIF went to meet KHAUWAJA MUHAMMAD  ZAMAN  LANWARI WARO in his last years of his life.

AKHUND NOOR  MUHAMMAD  BHATTI  was the FIRST Teacher of LATIF.

SHAH Jl SOORMI-MOOMAL AND MOOMAL  J1  MAARI” associated with her story in UMERKOT

In SUR GHATO OF  LATIF written poetry on “KALACHI JO KUN”. It Is located near “KIYAMANI” Karachi.

Mian Wali Muhammad son of Akhund Noor Muhammad Bhatti gave the funeral bath (Ghusal) to Latif after his death.

ATTAL & CHANCHAL  gave the names of chapters (sur) of Shah Jo Risalo.

The first time Shah Jo Risalo was published in 1866 in Leipzig Germany. It was published by EARNEST TRUMP.

One of the Soormo of Latif was Mehar. His grave is in Shahdadpur.

One of the Soormo of LATIF was Jam Tamachi. His title was Sultan Rukun-u-din.

SHAH LATIF always accompanied 3 books with himself-” QURAN PAAK, SHAH KARIM JO RISALO, Masnavi  Rumi”.

Suhni, a Soormi of SHAH ABDUL LATIF, is engraved in Shahdadpur.

A famous hypothetical story that SHAH ABDUL LATIF threw away his “SHAH JO RISALO “in the take. The name of that lake is “Karrar Dhandh”.

The only female who collected SHAH JO RISALO was “Mai Mull Nalmat”.

Eedan Razo was a man who belonged to SUKKAR that built the tomb of LATIF.

Urdu translation of SHAH JO RISALO is done by Shaikh Ayaz & Agha Saleern.

Siraeki translation of SHAH JO RISALO is done by Ustad Laghari.

English translation of SHAH JO RiSAlO  is done by Elsa Kazi, a German lady married to Allama I.I.Kazi, and Amena Khamesani.               

SACHAL SARMAST was 13 years when Latif died.

There are only 22 sur (chapters) in SHAH JO RiSALO collected by Earnest Trump,

There are 5 Sur (chapters) in SHAH JO RISALO about SUHNI.

Ancestors of LATIF came to Sindh In the reign of Amir Taimor

SHAH ABDUL LATIF wrote only Wai & Bait only.

Village of Marai”, a soormi of LATIF, is near Nangar Parkar, Thar.

Paigham-e-LATIF is the book of ‘G.M.5YED”.

SHAH LATIF Ji Shairi is the book written by Tanveer Abbasi.

Abdul Majeed Bhurgari brought SHAH JO RISALO in the E-book version first time on the internet.

Ancestors of Latif belonged to Hirat.

Allama i .i.Qazi compared SHAH ABDUL LATIF with Shakespeare.

Niaz Humayooni translated 7 sur (chapters) of SHAH JO RISALO in Persian,

Gul  Muhammad Khatri produced artworks in the form of portraits, landscape, and

calligraphic illustrations of the poetry of SHAH ABDUL LATIF BHITTAI. Therefore he is also known as Musawar-e-Latif.

SHAH JO RISALO is translated into Arabic by OR. Fazal Raheem Soomro.

Kirtaal Singh translated SHAH JO RISALO into Punjabi.

Shah LATIF chair was established at Karachi University in 1986.

Nadir shah attacked Sindh during the period of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai